The laws of composition 1


This time we will talk about the laws of composition, which we will consider using the example of painting.

When working with a camera, one must not forget that a photograph is first and foremost a work of fine art, which means that it must obey the classical rules of painting. Art historians and artists distinguish the following "laws" of composition:

Law of integrity Thanks to this law, the image is perceived as a single, whole, indivisible picture. “It is impossible to draw or paint from life, neglecting the law of integrity. Neither form nor color exist on their own, but only in relation to the whole, as part of the whole. Seriously, “firmly” you can draw something only by “building” your motive first, that is, by discovering its constructive idea, the principle of its structure,” writes Yevgeny Kibrik in his article for the journal Voprosy filosofii (1967).

If there is an indivisibility of the composition, then the picture simply cannot be perceived as the sum of several parts, only as a single work. “No matter how complicated the composition of the plot, no matter how many figures in it, no matter how large they are, but as soon as the picture carries its own special pictorial world, the more solid, monolithic the organism of this world will be, the clearer the viewer will perceive a semantic and plastic decision. Therefore, no matter how peculiar the artist’s creative face is and its compositional design is original, integrity is an objective means of composition, one of its main laws,” writes Alexey Laptev in the book “On Composition ”.

Law of contrasts The term "contrast" means a sharp difference, the opposite of the parties. Without contrast, you cannot create a single work. However, color contrast is not always the case. It may be the contrast of lines, sizes, shapes, states, or characters. This is, above all, the struggle of opposites.

“The meaning of contrasts in the composition has been known for a long time. Leonardo da Vinci in his “Treatise on Painting” drew attention to the fact that contrasts should be combined in the composition: next to high to set low, thick to thin, next to one dressed in velvet with its heavy and soft folds - a figure in silk, giving small and sharp folds, etc., ”writes Kibrik.

Law of subordination Fully this law can be formulated as the "Law of the subordination of all means of composition to ideological design."

Everything that the author depicts impresses the viewer only when inspired by the idea. This is where the fine line between creativity and craft passes. The law of subordination forces the artist to demonstrate his attitude to the depicted, to evaluate, analyze the impact on the viewer.

“The composition should flow from the internal, ideological reasons underlying the image. The artist’s goal is to find vivid, intelligible images and such means of expression that would more clearly reveal the ideological content of a work of art. Such means in the drawing will be a contour line, stroke, black-and-white shading, as well as those rules and laws by which the composition is built and whose knowledge helps the artist correctly depict the most complex compositions in the drawing. These rules include the doctrine of proportions ... concepts: symmetry, rhythm, statics and dynamics, as well as the laws of perspective. Figurative thinking suggests the creative application of these rules in practice in a particular composition, ”argues Alexander Deineka in the book “Learn to Draw. ”

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